Accents and other signs
The apostrophe (nf) is, in the French language, a small mark in the form of a comma ('), which is put at the top of a letter to mark the elision or the suppression of a vowel, when the next word begins with a vowel.
We know only three letters which, at the end of a word, are deleted before another word beginning with a vowel or a non-aspirated h . These three letters are a , e dumb, i. If we have others which are suppressed in certain circumstances, we do not apply to this suppression the term of elision.
An apostrophe is a figure of rhetoric or an oratorical process consisting in calling loudly and unexpectedly a person (present or absent) or a personified thing.
It is also a grammatical function of the word that designates the person or thing personified to whom one addresses oneself. One will say: Word in apostrophe, word put in apostrophe , to say that the word is affixed and which questions. The pronoun you is apostrophe in "You, come here! ".
Letters a and e
The letter a and the letter e are entrenched in the article the , the , and in the pronoun the , the.
Examples: The virtues are lost in the interest, as the rivers are lost in the sea . (La Rochefoucauld, Maxime 171) - Envy is destroyed by true friendship, flirtation and east by true love. (The Rochefoucauld, Maxime 376)
A and e do not elude in relative pronouns; the , the, placed after an imperative, nor in there , adverb.
Examples: Menez- to Paris. - Will he go there with you?
A and e do not jump in either , the, that, that , employees before the words eight, eight, eighth, eleven, eleventh , and before the expression yes and no .
Examples: From eight they were. - The eight of the month. - The eleven of January. - The yes and no.
The letter i elapses in the conjunction if , before the masculine pronoun it , both singular and plural.
Examples: He will if he can. - They will be wrong if they get angry.
However, this does not take place before any other word, by some vowel that it begins, even if it would be by an i .
Examples: If it comes. - If you are told that. - If a man was reckless enough. - If Irene had taken another course .
If , preceded by the conjunction and , was used formerly to say however , with that , nevertheless ; and then he never lost his vowel, not even in front of the pronoun.
Examples: He is brave and valiant, and if he is gentle and easy .
Employed in this sense, if is an expression that has aged and used only in familiar language.
The final silent e is always elided in pronunciation and in writing, before a vowel in monosyllables: I, me, you, is, that does it on. One marks the elision by the apostrophe.
Examples: j 'are over, I don''ll make it, I t 'admire, etc.
The silent e high sometimes elided in pronunciation and even in writing, before feminine nouns that begin with a consonant.
Examples: Grandmother, grandmother, grandmess, grandmother, grandmother, grandmother, grandmother .
However, there are only the words grandmother , grand'ant , for whom the rule is general; and if we suppress the e of greatness in other words, it can only be in the marotic style, in the fable and in the vaudeville.
Examples: The poor woman was so scared . (Jean de La Fontaine, The Husband, The Woman and the Thief )
When the word grand is preceded by some prepositive or equivalent of the article, the final dumb e does not suffer from elision.
Examples: A big room, the biggest expensive, a very big mass, the greatest pain , etc.
The mute e of the preposition is elided between some help each other as if entr'accorder if entr'accompagner if entr'accuser, half open, etc. There are writers and grammarians who write with distinction between them , among them , among others, interamerica …
This elision has gradually disappeared. One will then write: to help one another , to accuse oneself , to meditate , to perceive one another , to open oneself between them , between them , between friends , etc.
The final e until it elapses before a , at , at , here .
Examples: Until Rome, until the sky, until the clouds, until here .
Since and though
The e of since and of while eludes, but it is only when these words are followed by it, they, she, they, one, one, one , or a word with which these conjunctions are immediately linked .
Examples: Puisqu 'as is, since it wants, ALTHOUGH it is, Although he is …
But one will write: Because to help the unfortunate is a duty . " The master of the house seems to me a generous man, though a little proud . (Voltaire)
Some and whatever
The final e of some eludes before one, one .
Examples: Someone, someone .
And in whatever it is , whatever it is . In other cases, the e does not elude.
Examples: I had some hope a faint spark . (Voltaire, Merope , Act II, Section 2.) - As I imagine you have some impatience to see something of the satire of women, etc. (Boileau, Letter to Racine )
→ To consult: Difference between some and what .
The final e of almost goes only in the peninsula . Out of it, it is written without elision: A work almost completed, a worn out habit .
Never, in any case, should one write eliding the silent e of the preposition against .
Examples: Counter-aisle, counter-admiral, counter-inquiry, counter-ermine, counter-order , etc.
Me and you
Me and you , placed after an imperative, rush ahead in , never before there.
Examples: Give me, go away. - Take me there .
→ To consult: The personal pronouns in and y .
- The name
- The adjective
- The verb
- Special agreements
- French language questions
- Spelling notes on some homonyms
- Spelling a few words to remember
- 1990 orthographic corrections
‣‣‣ Recommended items for you …